# How informative are shape notes?¶

Shape note singers learn to sight-sing using a mnemonic system. Each degree of the scale is associated with a shape and a syllable, and before we sing a song we “sing the shapes” to remind ourselves how it goes.

What’s weird is that the most popular version of the system is defective: it has too few shapes. There are seven notes to the diatonic octave — but only four shapes and four syllables.

What’s really weird is that, despite this defect, a lot of singers seem to pay more attention to the (ambiguous) shapes than to the (unambiguous) staff notation when they sing. Some lifelong singers swear they don’t understand staff notation at all. A lot more can read it a little but can’t really write it, and so if they want to jot a melody down will jot it down as shapes alone. I don’t rely this purely on the shapes, but I definitely do rely on them pretty heavily: If I’m trying to sing something written in round notes, I need to imagine the shapes on top of them or I get lost.

Another fun bit of anecdotal evidence: The version of the Sacred Harp I first started singing from, the Cooper edition, was until 2012 absolutely full of typos. And the rule of thumb I was taught was “Just look at the shape. Ignore the line of the staff it’s on.” Right-shape-wrong-staff-line typos were rampant, wrong-shape-right-staff-line typos were basically nonexistant. That’s a pattern that only makes sense in a world where people really are looking at the shapes first.

## Letters and words¶

Up until about 2PM today, I had a theory, and it went like this: Okay, sure, a single shape on its own is ambiguous. But Sacred Harp singers don’t look at single shapes, we look at sequences of shapes — and those are much clearer. This sat well with my intuitive experience of sight-singing from shapes, where it felt like I’d learned syllable sequences like “so-la-mi-fa” as words and then learned a tune for each word.

Think of it like reading English words out loud. English is infamous for having multiple pronunciations for most letters — and yet most written words are unambiguous. Ask me “Is the first letter I on page 87 of this book short or long?” and I have no idea. Tell me it’s part of the word with and there’s no longer any doubt.

There are some cases where this is clearly what’s going on in the Sacred Harp: mi fa is basically always “pronounced” 7-1 rather than 7-4, with only four exceptions in the book. I think that makes it fair to say that mi fa-pronounced-7-4 practically just “isn’t a word” in the Sacred Harp style (or, to be fair, in most other American music outside of jazz).

And there are lots of cases where context helps a bit: so fa is only rarely 2-4, and is disproportionately likely to be 2-1.

Maybe this is like the case of ambiguous-but-guessable words like minute, where the short-I pronunciation (meaning a unit of time) is disproportionately likely — and so is the safe guess if you need to guess — but the long-I pronunciation (meaning “tiny”) is possible. Or maybe these sequences need to be seen as part of a longer word to be disambiguated.

## Testing the theory¶

This seems easy enough to test!

Basically, what we as human singers have here is a classification task: given a sequence of shapes, convert it into a sequence of pitches. The letters-in-a-word hypothesis predicts that it’s possible to get good performance on this task just by looking at short local sequences of shapes — and in particular, that performance based on sequences of, say, three or four shapes will be much better than performance based on single shapes.

And if humans are getting good performance by looking at these very simple features — I mean, really just these features, not sneaking in anything fancier — then a computer should be able to do the same.

So, I got MIDI files for every song in the Sacred Harp (thanks, Cait!) and trained me a classifier.

The details are a bit different, but the basic idea is like the one behind a very simple autocorrect system:

• The autocorrect system asks, “Given the last few words they’ve typed, and given the current word they typed is i-d, are they more likely to have meant is or id?”
• A shape-to-pitch system asks, “Given the last n shapes we saw, and given the current shape is a fa, is it more likely to represent scale degree 1 or scale degree 4?”

And if I’m right, performance for n=3 or n=4 should be substantially better than performance for n=1.

## Being wrong¶

And after a pleasant morning of hacking, it turns out I am super wrong.

n accuracy
1 73%
2 74%
3 75%
4 76%
5 75%

The high accuracy for $$n=1$$ is not startling: shapes are, at worst, two-ways ambiguous, so we could have beaten 50% accuracy without even looking at training data. The disappointing part is that $$2\le n\le5$$ are scarcely any better.

Despite my own intuitions about my own singing, it turns out that grouping shapes into “words” does next to nothing to take away their ambiguity.

## So...?¶

What does this leave? What are people who “read shapes but not staff notation” doing? Here’s a few things I can think of:

• Not really reading the shapes, but using them as a mnemonic for a tune they’ve memorized.
• Reading staff notation better than they claim, and using the shapes as an extra boost. (I know this is how I use the shapes — maybe the difference between me and them isn’t that I’m better at reading staff notation, but that they’re more modest than me?)
• Grouping shapes into “words” after all, but doing it in a more sophisticated way, maybe taking rhythm or bar lines into account.
• Ignoring most features of the staff notation, but using one or two to disambiguate the shapes.

I’m especially intrigued by that last possibility. For instance, maybe shapes-plus-“is this a high note or a low note?” gives enough information. Or maybe it’s shapes-plus-direction, so that the “words” singers recognize aren’t just “fa-la-so” but “fa↗la↗so” or “fa↘la↘so”?